Geneva Call is a private, not-for-profit humanitarian organization founded in 1998 under Swiss law. Geneva Call is dedicated to promoting respect by armed non-State actors (ANSAs) for international humanitarian norms in armed conflict and other situations of violence in particular those related to the protection of civilians. Geneva Call is currently focusing its efforts on banning the use of anti-personnel mines, protecting children and medical missions from the effects of armed conflict, prohibiting sexual violence in armed conflict and working towards the elimination of gender discrimination.
As part of a broader project carried out in Libya called “Protection Response in Libya”, implemented along with DRC and supported by the Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO), Geneva Call is looking to increase knowledge on the Libyan armed actors and their practices in terms of respect of International Humanitarian Norms (IHRL, IHL, with a specific focus on conduct of hostilities, detention in relation to the conflict, and child recruitment). In order to inform its programming in Libya, Geneva Call seeks to map out alliances, ideological background and position in current conflict dynamics of the main Libyan armed actors, in order to properly identify the kind of leverage for change towards a better respect of IHL. In this context, Geneva Call is looking for a consultant to conduct a mapping of armed actors in Libya.
2. Scope of the Research
The consultancy forms part of a broader programme on promoting International Humanitarian Law (IHL) among armed actors in Libya. The analyses will provide a basis to inform Geneva Call’s programming in Libya. As such, it forms an integral part of the overall project activities.
The actors mapping will cover the following aspects:
a) General conflict developments since 2011, with an emphasis on latest developments since April 2019;
b) General overview on armed actors in Libya, their history and development (since 2011), their alliances, conflicts and humanitarian policies (if accessible) and practices (in relation to the conduct of hostilities, general respect of the principles of distinction, precaution and proportionality, detention and child recruitment);
c) Portrayal of at least 10 of the most relevant armed actors in Libya. This should include a clear picture of their structure, their chains of commands (centralized, VS decentralized, existence of parallel chains of commands, efficiency of chains of commands), external influences and support, ideological reference, potential outside influencers, IHL record.
Due to the sensitivity of this research, Geneva Call asks the research to only focus on elements that can be used in the framework if its project cycle management (aiming at improving the respect of IHL) and to avoid collection of data that could be considered as sensitive (such as number of fighters, exact locations, capabilities etc.)
The methodology will have to be defined by applicants. However, it should include:
· A review of the already existing literature;
· Clear outline of the data collection methodology
· Sampling (list of planned interviews with key stakeholders and representatives of armed actors)
· Interview guide
· Proposed timeline
The data collection methodology will need to be approved by GC prior to use.
4. Location and Duration of the Assignment
· This research will mainly be conducted in Libya, and shall include visits to other locations to meet with key stakeholders, as agreed with GC
· The duration of the assignment is from 28 October to 31 December 2019
5. Skills and experience of the consultant
· Proven expertise in researching armed conflict and armed actors.
· Experience from working in/on the Libyan context.
· Knowledge of the specificities of humanitarian action, current challenges in situations of armed conflict and International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
· Excellent knowledge of Arabic and English.
6. Reporting and Deliverables
The reporting obligations and deliverables of the consultancy are the following:
A) Report mapping out armed actors in Libya.
a. A chapter on General conflict developments since 2011;
b. A chapter on the latest developments since April 2019, including an overview of evolvement of armed actors throughout the conflict.
B) Establish profiles of at least 10 most relevant Libyan armed actors, including
– their alliance systems; –
– held territories;
– tribal composition if relevant;
– ideologies (in order to determine potential influencers);
– behaviour towards the respect of IHL (with a focus on conduct of hostilities, child recruitment, detention in relation to the conflict);
– chains of command (including existence of potential parallel ones);
– external and internal influencers (including ideological and religious and non-Libyan actors involved in the conflict) as well as key non-Libyan actors involved in the conflict);
– humanitarian policies and practices, including on humanitarian access.
C) Produce and conduct presentation of report findings to Geneva Call, its partner organisation and donor on this project. Place of briefing (on-site or via skype) to be determined. The reporting language is English.
7. Interested candidates
Interested candidates should send a CV, the abstract of such the methodology and mapping and a tentative budget to the following email address: email@example.com. As a subject put “Libya armed actors mapping”.
Deadline for applications: 16 October 2019